Why I chose to build a Plack framework instead of using Mojolicious

I've invested a lot of time in Mojolicious development (a so called "next generation web framework for the Perl programming language"). Of course I didn't commit any revolutionary patches, or affected it's architecture somehow, but I tried to use it in every scenario I could think of, reported bugs, proposed a few feature requests. So why I decided to switch to Plack and build my own web framework?


I will try to be objective and try not to mention any personal or community issues. The main reason of this article is not to convince anyone but to explain how I became a pragmatic programmer.

Before I start here are brief descriptions of Mojolicious and Plack respectively.

Mojolicious is a framework that claims to be "the next generation web framework for the Perl programming language". Among various buzz words in its features it has RESTful routes, plugins, Perl-ish templates, sessions, signed cookies, HTTP/1.1 server/client implementation, WebSocket support with async IO, JSON and XML/HTML5 parser with CSS3 selectors.

Plack is Perl Superglue for Web frameworks and Web Servers. It contains middleware components, a reference server and utilities for Web application frameworks.

It would be silly to compare Mojolicious and Plack, but I am comparing Plack to something what Mojo used to be: a set of tools for building your own framework.

Wrong assumption

One of the claimed Mojolicious strengths is its 'Web in a box!' motto. But for me it is the biggest weakness. It is a highly coupled, monolithic, one-way-to-do-it, inflexible (because it's not supposed to be) framework.

More code - more bugs.

Having everything just right there looks like a good thing, but it works like a vendor lock-in. Once you realize that you want to change how dispatching works, how sessions are handled, how rendering or a low level http parsing is done - you are screwed, because you are 'holding it wrong'.

Once you realize that you don't need Async IO and want to minimize a memory footprint or startup time, switch off everything that you don't need for a simple CGI application - you're screwed. And don't forget:

More code - more bugs.


Object-oriented programming is like 30 years old. Sorry, Mojolicious is not there. If you see a nice looking candy wrapper it doesn't mean there is a candy inside. 150+ lines long methods, deep not obvious inheritance, absence of exception handling, global namespace for saving everything from system settings to user variables, highly coupled components.

Ever wondered why you need a WebSocket support if you don't need it, and why there are 27 checks like:


in subroutines that deal with routes and controllers?

Have you read Perl Best Practices or Clean Code? Do you like self explanatory code and hate overused comments? Do you think that tests must be as clean as the main code? Do you think that tests don't prove anything, except that they test what you actually test? Forget about it.

From Mojo::Util:

# Increment

Benefits to Perl community

Mojolicious has a lot of parts. But can you use them if you aren't using Mojolicious? No. Everything or nothing.

How about releasing routing, templates, DOM and JSON parsing etc as a separate modules so everybody could benefit? No. Everything or nothing.

Plack alternative

Plack is a good example for collection of modules (bricks) that can be easily combined together.

Middleware processing (known also as a filter chain) is the most flexible way for response <-> request handling. Separated classes that wrap your application can add new functionality, control the flow, perform pre- and postprocessing actions.

Handlers or server adapters add a transparent support for various web servers, eliminating the need to implement, test and maintain them.

Writing a Plack web framework

So what do you need in order to write a Plack web framework?

HTTP parsing? Sessions? Logging? Debug panel? Static files? Exception handling? Protection from CSRF? Gzip? JavaScript or CSS preprocessing? It's already there. In separate and pluggable middlewares.

Need route dispatching? Rendering? Configuration loading? Implement it as a middleware and release so everybody can benefit.

Don't like Moose? Like Moose? Don't like Async IO? Like Async IO? Write your framework and use what you like.


There is no tool that does everything and does it well. But there can be a lot of small tools that do small things and do them well. By combining small tools a perfect fit for solving the current problem can be found.


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